Anthony W. Carroll* and Stephen G. Pyne*
Background: The inherent glycosidase inhibitory activity and potentially therapeutic value of the polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids containing a hydroxymethyl substituent at the C-3 position has been well documented. Belonging to this class, the naturally occurring hyacinthacine C-type alkaloids are of general interest among iminosugar researchers. Their selective micromolar α-glycosidase inhibitory ranges (10 – 100 µM) suggest these azasugars are potential leads for treating type II diabetes. However, the structures of hyacinthacine C1, C3 and C4 are insecure with hyacinthacine C5 being recently corrected.
Objective: This review presents the hyacinthacine C-type alkaloids: their first discovery through to the most recent advancements on the structures, biological activities and total synthesis.
Conclusion: The hyacinthacine C-type alkaloids are of exponentially increasing interest and will undoubtedly continue to be reported as synthetic targets. They represent a challenging but rewarding synthetic feat for the community of those interested in accessing biologically active iminosugars. Since 2009, ten total syntheses have been employed towards accessing similarly related products but only three have assessed the glycosidase inhibitory activity of the final products. This suggests the need for an accessible and universal glycosidase inhibitory assay so to accurately determine the structure-activity relationship of how the hyacinthacine C-type alkaloids inhibit specific glycosidases. Confirming the correct structures of the hyacinthacine C-type alkaloids as well as accessing various analogues continues to strengthen the foundation towards a marketable treatment for type II diabetes and other glycosidase related illnesses.
iminosugars, pyrrolizidine, hyacinthacine, alkaloids, total synthesis, natural product, glycosidase inhibition
School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, 2522, School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, 2522