Anne Kokel, Christian Schäfer* and Béla Török* Pages 615 - 649 ( 35 )
Recent advances in the application of environmentally benign acid catalysts in organic synthesis are reviewed. The work includes three main parts; (i) description of environmentally benign acid catalysts, (ii) synthesis with heterogeneous and (iii) homogeneous catalysts. The first part provides a brief overview of acid catalysts, both solid acids (metal oxides, zeolites, clays, ion-exchange resins, metal-organic framework based catalysts) and those that are soluble in green solvents (water, alcohols) and at the same time could be regenerated after reactions (metal triflates, heteropoly acids, acidic organocatalysts etc.). The synthesis sections review a broad array of the most common and practical reactions such as Friedel-Crafts and related reactions (acylation, alkylations, hydroxyalkylations, halogenations, nitrations etc.), multicomponent reactions, rearrangements and ring transformations (cyclizations, ring opening). Both the heterogeneous and homogeneous catalytic synthesis parts include an overview of asymmetric acid catalysis with chiral Lewis and Brønsted acids. Although a broad array of catalytic processes are discussed, emphasis is placed on applications with commercially available catalysts as well as those of sustainable nature; thus individual examples are critically reviewed regarding their contribution to sustainable synthesis.
Solid acid, heterogeneous catalysis, metal oxides, clay, zeolite, metal-organic-frameworks, heteropoly acids, ion-exchange resins, sulfated metal oxides.
Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125, Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125, Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125