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Bio-reduction of Graphene Oxide: Catalytic Applications of (Reduced) GO in Organic Synthesis

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 3 ]


Vijai K. Rai*, Suhasini Mahata, Hemant Kashyap, Manorama Singh and Ankita Rai   Pages 164 - 191 ( 28 )


This work is based on various bio-reduction of graphene oxide into reduced graphene oxide and their applications in organic synthesis and group transformations. Graphene oxide, with abundant oxygencontaining functional groups on its basal plane, provides potential advantages, including excellent dispersibility in solvents and the good heterogeneous catalyst. This manuscript reviews various methods of synthesis of graphene and graphene oxide and a comparative study on their advantages and disadvantages, how to overcome disadvantages and covers extensive relevant literature review. In the last few years, investigation based on replacing the chemical reduction methods by some bio-compatible, chemical/impurity-free rGO including flash photo reductions, hydrothermal dehydration, solvothermal reduction, electrochemical approach, microwave-assisted reductions, light and radiation-induced reductions has been reported. Particularly, plant extracts have been applied significantly as an efficient reducing agent due to their huge bioavailability and low cost for bio-reduction of graphene oxide. These plant extracts mainly contain polyphenolic compounds, which readily get oxidized to the corresponding unreactive quinone form, which are the driving force for choosing them as bio-compatible catalyst. Currently, efforts are being made to develop biocompatible methods for the reduction of graphene oxide. The reduction abilities of such phytochemicals have been reported in the synthesis and stabilization of various nanoparticles viz. Ag, Au, Fe and Pd. Various part of plant extract has been applied for the green reduction of graphene oxide. Furthermore, the manuscript describes the catalytic applications of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as efficient carbo-catalysts for valuable organic transformations. Herein, important works dedicated to exploring graphene-based materials as carbocatalysts, including GO and rGO for organic synthesis including various functional group transformations, oxidation, reduction, coupling reaction and a wide number of multicomponent reactions have been highlighted. Finally, the aim of this study is to provide an outlook on future trends and perspectives for graphene-based materials in metal-free carbo-catalysis in green synthesis of various pharmaceutically important moieties.


Graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, properties of GO/rGO, green synthesis of rGO, catalytic applications, bio-reduction.


Department of Chemistry, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur (C.G.)-495009, Department of Chemistry, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur (C.G.)-495009, Department of Chemistry, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur (C.G.)-495009, Department of Chemistry, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur (C.G.)-495009, School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110027

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