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Synthesis of Spiro1,4–Dihydropyridines: A Review


Zahra Sadri and Farahnaz K. Behbahani*   Pages 1 - 20 ( 20 )


The preparation of medicinally promising spiro1,4–dihydropyridines accompanied by their applications in biological and pharmaceutical activities were presented. Spiro1,4–dihydropyridines are synthesized using numerous reported methods including: Bronested acids such as p-TSA, AcOH, nano-ranged calix[4]arene tetracarboxylic acid, sulfamic acid, PEG-OSO3H, tetramethylguanidinium triflate; Lewis acids including Zn(OTf)2, FeCl3, copper, alum, aluminosilicate nanoparticles, MnFe2O4 nanoparticles, manganese ferrite nanoparticles, BF3OEt2; under alkaline condition such as Et3N and piperidine; ionic liquids such as [KAl(SO4)2·12H2O] and [Bmim]PF6, [MIM(CH2)4SO3H][HSO4]); and the others miscellaneous procedures for example microwave-assisted, catalyst and solvent-free condition, iodine, PEG-400, and NaCl.


spiro1, 4–dihydropyridines, heterocyclic, synthesis, multi-component, one-pot


Department of Chemistry, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Department of Chemistry, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj

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