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Synthesis of Spiro1,4–Dihydropyridines: A Review

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Zahra Sadri and Farahnaz K. Behbahani*   Pages 324 - 343 ( 20 )

Abstract:


The preparation of medicinally promising spiro1,4–dihydropyridines accompanied by their applications in biological and pharmaceutical activities is presented. Spiro1,4–dihydropyridines were synthesized using numerous reported methods including bronested acids such as p-TSA, AcOH, nano-ranged calix[4]arene tetracarboxylic acid, sulfamic acid, PEG-OSO3H, tetramethylguanidinium triflate; lewis acids including Zn(OTf)2, FeCl3, copper, alum, aluminosilicate nanoparticles, MnFe2O4 nanoparticles, manganese ferrite nanoparticles, BF3OEt2; under alkaline conditions such as Et3N and piperidine; ionic liquids such as [KAl(SO4)2·12H2O] and [Bmim]PF6, [MIM(CH2)4SO3H][HSO4]; and other miscellaneous procedures, for example, microwave-assisted catalyst and solvent-free conditions, using iodine, PEG-400, and NaCl.

Keywords:

Spiro1, 4-dihydropyridines, heterocyclic, synthesis, multi-component, one-pot, bronested acids.

Affiliation:

Department of Chemistry, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Department of Chemistry, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj

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