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Halogenated Flavones and Isoflavones: A State-of-Art on their Synthesis

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 6 ]

Author(s):

Ricardo Santos, Diana Pinto, Clara Magalhães and Artur Silva*   Pages 415 - 425 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background: Flavonoid is a family of compounds present in the everyday consumption plants and fruits, contributing to a balanced diet and beneficial health effects. Being a scaffold for new drugs and presenting a wide range of applicability in the treatment of illnesses give them also an impact in medicine. Among the several types of flavonoids, flavone and isoflavone derivatives can be highlighted due to their prevalence in nature and biological activities already established. The standard synthetic route to obtain both halogenated flavones and isoflavones is through the use of already halogenated starting materials. Halogenation of the flavone and isoflavone core is less common because it is more complicated and involves some selectivity issues.

Objective: Considering the importance of these flavonoids, we aim to present the main and more recent synthetic approaches towards their halogenation.

Methods: The most prominent methodologies for the synthesis of halogenated flavones and isoflavones were reviewed. A careful survey of the reported data, using mainly the Scopus database and halogenation, flavones and isoflavones as keywords, was conducted.

Results: Herein, a review is provided on the latest and more efficient halogenation protocols of flavones and isoflavones. Selective halogenation and the greener methodologies, including enzymatic and microbial halogenations, were reported. Nevertheless, some interesting protocols that allowed the synthesis of halogenated flavone and isoflavone derivatives in specific positions using halogenated reagents are also summarized.

Conclusion: Halogenated flavones and isoflavones have risen as noticeable structures; however, most of the time, the synthetic procedures involve toxic reagents and harsh reaction conditions. Therefore, the development of new synthetic routes with low environmental impact is desirable.

Keywords:

Flavonoids, selective halogenation, enzymatic halogenation, microbial halogenation, substitution reactions, addition reactions, flavones, isoflavones.

Affiliation:

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Department of Chemistry and CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Aveiro

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