Submit Manuscript  

Article Details

Strategies for the Preparation of Bifunctional Gadolinium(III) Chelators

[ Vol. 8 , Issue. 4 ]


Luca Frullano and Peter Caravan   Pages 535 - 565 ( 31 )


The development of gadolinium chelators that can be easily and readily linked to various substrates is of primary importance for the development high relaxation efficiency and/or targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Over the last 25 years a large number of bifunctional chelators have been prepared. For the most part, these compounds are based on ligands that are already used in clinically approved contrast agents. More recently, new bifunctional chelators have been reported based on complexes that show a more potent relaxation effect, faster complexation kinetics and in some cases simpler synthetic procedures. This review provides an overview of the synthetic strategies used for the preparation of bifunctional chelators for MRI applications.


Bifunctional chelator, Gadolinium, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Lanthanide, Bioconjugate, Molecular Imaging, DOTA, DTPA, GdDTPA, GdDOTA derivatives


A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 149 13th St, Suite 2301, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.

Read Full-Text article